Cocaine information shows that this is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. The powdered, hydrochloride salt form of cocaine can be snorted or dissolved in water and injected. Crack is cocaine that has not been neutralized by an acid to make the hydrochloride salt. This form of cocaine comes in a rock crystal that can be heated and its vapors smoked. The term "crack" refers to the crackling sound heard when it is heated.
Cocaine information shows that cocaine use leads to a broad range of medical complications affecting nearly every one of the body's organ systems. Regardless of how cocaine is used or how frequently, an user can experience acute cardiovascular or cerebrovascular emergencies, such as a heart attack or stroke, which could result in sudden death. Cocaine-related deaths are often a result of cardiac arrest or seizure followed by respiratory arrest.
When taken repeatedly over long periods, cocaine can cause changes in behavior, including irritability, hypervigilance (being overly watchful or alert), paranoid thinking, excessive activity, and eating and sleep disturbances. Cocaine information reveals repeated cocaine use can also cause severe mental disturbances. The user may develop a psychosis in which he or she feels paranoid and anxious and has hallucinations. Some users display unpredictable, odd behavior that may become violent. Stopping cocaine use after a binge often causes a crash, in which the user becomes depressed, feels tired, and has eating and sleep disturbances. At first during the crash, the person does not crave more cocaine. But as time goes on, the user may think of little else other than finding the next dose.
Cocaine information has revealed some users of cocaine report feelings of restlessness, irritability, and anxiety. A tolerance to the high may develop - many addicts report that they seek but fail to achieve as much pleasure as they did from their first exposure. Some users will increase their doses to intensify and prolong the euphoric effects. While tolerance to the high can occur, users can also become more sensitive to cocaine's anesthetic and convulsant effects without increasing the dose taken. This increased sensitivity may explain some deaths occurring after apparently low doses of cocaine.
Recent cocaine information notes other complications associated with cocaine use include disturbances in heart rhythm and heart attacks, chest pain and respiratory failure, strokes, seizures and headaches, and gastrointestinal complications such as abdominal pain and nausea. Because cocaine has a tendency to decrease appetite, many chronic users can become malnourished.
According to cocaine information from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 1.9 million Americans ages 12 and older used cocaine in the past month; a decrease from 2.1 million users in 2007. Cocaine use in youth 18-25 years decreased from 1.7% in 2007 to 1.5% in 2008. According to the 2008 Monitoring the Future Study, cocaine annual prevalence is 1.8%, 3.0%, and 4.4%, for 8th, 10th, and 12th graders, respectively. Cocaine abuse occurs in both genders and among various ethnic groups of the U.S.
Current cocaine information shows us Colombia produces about 90% of the cocaine powder reaching the U.S. According to the 2005 Colombia Threat Assessment, 90% of the cocaine shipped to the U.S. comes from the Central America - Mexico corridor. According to the Federal-Wide Drug Seizure System, U.S. Federal law enforcement officials seized 152,736 kg of cocaine in 2006, 140,959 kg in 2007, and 91,186 kg in 2008. According to the System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence, DEA forensic laboratories reported a total of 21,944 exhibits identified as cocaine in 2006, 19,694 cocaine exhibits in 2007, and 18,262 cocaine exhibits in 2008. In the first six months of 2009, 8,914 exhibits have been identified by DEA laboratories as cocaine. According to the National Forensic Laboratory Information System, 508,671 cocaine items/exhibits were submitted to state and local forensic laboratories in 2006, 475,244 cocaine items/exhibits in 2007, and 418,329 cocaine items/exhibits in 2008. From January to June 2009, 172,689 cocaine items/exhibits were submitted to state and local laboratories. The American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) tracks the number of poison exposures of various substances and their and outcomes. In 2006, the AAPCC reported 7,746 case mentions of cocaine (2,922 single exposures) and 25 deaths. In 2007, the number of cocaine case mentions decreased to 7,634 (2,748 single exposures) and deaths decreased to 20.